Afghan-U.S. relations are entering a new and uncertain period. The sole certainty is that the United States is anticipating a less intensive, less costly involvement. What can the United States hope to achieve in partnership with Afghanistan in the coming years? Can development, investment, and cultural initiatives be sustained under continued insecurity? How can Afghanistan’s private sector be harnessed to promote economic and cultural development? A select group of American and Afghan development practitioners, international organization and NGO officials, private sector executives, think-tank representatives, and government advisors met to debate answers the above questions.